Today we will look at how to use Google more effectively and efficiently as we explore beyond Basic Google searches and conduct Advance Google and Google Scholar searches.
When you do a search on the World Wide Web, your hit results can be anywhere from:
To figure out where a Web page is coming from, you need to know how to read a web address, orURL (Universal Resource Locator).
Here's what it all means:
Only a few top-level domains are currently recognized, but this is changing. Here is a list of the domains generally accepted by all:
In mid November 2000, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) voted to accept an additional seven new suffixes, which are expected to be made available to users sometime in 2001:
NOTE: Because the Internet was created in this country, "US" was not originally assigned to
For a list of ISO Internet Country Codes, go to:
You can tell a lot about the authenticity of a page by finding out all you can about its author/publisher.
Ask yourself this:
· Who is responsible for the page you are accessing?__________________
· Is it a governmental agency or other official source? _________________
· A university? ________________________________________________
· A business, corporation or other commercial interest? ________________
· An individual? _______________________________________________
As a rule of thumb, you can generally rely on the GOV, MIL and EDU hostnames to present accurate information. The NET, ORG and COM are more uncertain and might require additional verification.
A reputable Web page will usually provide you with the following information:
Now ask yourself this:
If the page owner is not readily recognizable, does he provide you with credentials or some information on his sources or authority?_____________
On the web, each individual can be his/her own publisher, and many are. Don't accept everything you read just because it's printed on a web page. Unlike scholarly books and journal articles, web sites are seldom reviewed or refereed. It's up to you to check for bias and to determine objectivity.
Who sponsors the page? (i.e. The Flat Earth Society? Hmmm …)____________
Who is linking to the page? __________________________________________
What links to other pages does the page itself maintain? _____________________
Look to see if the page owner tells you when the page was last updated._______
Is the information current?___________________________________________
Can it be verified at other, similar sites?________________________________
Try to distinguish between promotion, advertising, and serious content. This is getting to be more difficult, as an increasing number of pages must look to commercial support for their continuance.
Watch out for deliberate frauds and hoaxes. Some folks really enjoy playing games on the Web. Take a look at these two Web pages:
The third version of The White House is too explicit to make this example!!!!
There is no way to freeze a web page in time. Unlike the print world with its publication dates, editions, ISBN numbers, etc., web pages are fluid. There's no bibliographic control on the web. The page you cite today may be altered or revised tomorrow, or it might disappear completely. The page owner might or might not acknowledge the changes and, if he relocates the page, might or might not leave a forwarding address.
Try to assess the stability of the pages you reference. Again, one of the best ways to do this is to look closely at the page sponsor, last date updated, and the authority of the author(s).
When you are writing a paper and using web pages as source material, keep a backup of what you find on the web, (either as a printout or saved to disk) so that you can verify your sources later on if need be.