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Resources for the Study of African Americans in Indiana County: Home

Additional Resources

  • Unto Us a Child is Born: A Demographic Study By Sonya Stewart.
  • Stephenson, Clarence. The Impact of the Slavery Issue on Indiana County. Marion Center, Pa.: Mahoning Mimeograph & Pamphlet Service, 1964. IUP Libraries Call Number F157. I39 no. 2
  • “Indiana Area Blacks Battle for Civil Rights,” Indiana Gazette, June 8, 1985.
  • Trotter, Joe W. Reflections on the Great Migration to Western Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh History 78 (4), 1995-1996, p. 153-157.
  • Kozol, Jonathan. “Expanding Academic Conscience,”Saturday Review, 51 (August 17, 1968) p. 21-23.

Unpublished Studies

African Americans in Indiana County Oral History Project


The African American population of Indiana County is a small but significant group whose experience has never been adequately recorded. In 2006,  IUP Libraries received from the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission a grant to work with local history consultants to conduct oral history interviews with longtime African American residents. The results documented the unique rural Pennsylvania experience of this minority group, focusing on their life experiences in the decades of the early to late 20th century with an emphasis on family life, community, church, work, race relations, entertainment, music, the civil rights movement, military experience and other historical events. 

Internet Background Sources

Stephenson, Clarence. The Impact of the slavery issue on Indiana County. Marion Center, Pa.:  Mahoning Mimeograph & Pamphlet Service, [1964]

_____.  “Indiana Area Blacks battle for Civil Rights,” Indiana Gazette , June 8, 1985.

Trotter, Joe W. 1995-1996 Reflections on the great migration to Western Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh History 78 (4):153-157.

Unpublished Sources

Government Information / Outreach Librarian

Background Resources for the History of African Americans in Pennsylvania

Armstead, R., & Gardner, S. L. (2002). Black days, black dust: The memories of an African American coal miner. Univ. of Tennessee Press.

Crew, Spencer R. 1987. Field to factory: Afro-American migration 1915-1940 Washington, D.C.: Dept. of Public Programs, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.

Gottlieb, Peter. 1987. Making their own way: southern blacks' migration to Pittsburgh, 1916-30 Urbana University of Illinois Press. 

Nyden, L. (1977). Black Miners in Western Pennsylvania, 1925-1931: The National Miners Union and the United Mine Workers of America. Science & Society, 69-101.

Trotter, Joe William. 1990. Coal, class, and color: Blacks in southern West Virginia, 1915-32, Blacks in the New World. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 

Trotter, Joe William and Eric Ledell Smith. 1997. African Americans in Pennsylvania: shifting historical perspectives. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Williams, Bruce T.  We'll make the journey [videorecording]: the African American story of Johnstown, Pennsylvania, migration and work. Johnstown, PA, 1992.


Pittsburgh and the Civil Rights Movement